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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2020-27
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2020-27
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 24 Feb 2020

Submitted as: research article | 24 Feb 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Insights into the recurrent energetic eruptions on Awu, one of the deadliest volcano on earth

Philipson Bani1, Kristianto2, Syegi Kunrat2, and Devy Kamil Syahbana2 Philipson Bani et al.
  • 1Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Université Blaise Pascal – CNRS – IRD, OPGC, Aubière, France
  • 2Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jl. Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung, Indonesia

Abstract. The little know Awu volcano is among the deadliest with a cumulative dead toll of 11048. In less than 4 centuries, 18 eruptions were recorded, including two VEI-4 and three VEI-3 with worldwide impacts. The regional geodynamic is controlled by a divergent-double-subduction and an arc-arc collision. In that context, the slab stalls in the mantle, undergoes an increase of temperature and becomes prone to melting, a process that sustained the magmatic supply. Awu also has the particularity to host alternatively and simultaneously a lava dome and a crater lake throughout its activity. The lava dome occurred passively through the crater lake and induced strong water evaporation from the crater. A conduit plug associated with this dome emplacement subsequently channeled the gas emission to the crater wall. However, with the lava dome cooling, the high annual rainfall eventually reconstituted the crater lake and creating a hazardous situation on Awu. Indeed with a new magma injection, rapid pressure buildup may pulverize the conduit plug and the lava dome, allowing lake water injection and subsequent explosive water-magma interaction. The past vigorous eruptions are likely induced by these phenomena, a possible scenario for the future events.

Philipson Bani et al.

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Short summary
Awu is a little known volcano in Indonesia and paradoxically it is one of the deadliest volcanoes on earth. Some of its recurrent intense eruptions have induced world-scale impacts. The pulverization of a cooled lava dome and its conduit plug have allowed lake water injection into the conduit, leading to explosive water-magma interaction. The past vigorous eruptions were likely induced by these phenomena and it is a possible scenario for future events.
Awu is a little known volcano in Indonesia and paradoxically it is one of the deadliest...
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