Journal cover Journal topic
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 2.883 IF 2.883
  • IF 5-year value: 3.321 IF 5-year
  • CiteScore value: 3.07 CiteScore
  • SNIP value: 1.336 SNIP 1.336
  • IPP value: 2.80 IPP 2.80
  • SJR value: 1.024 SJR 1.024
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 81 Scimago H
    index 81
  • h5-index value: 43 h5-index 43
Discussion papers
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 28 Mar 2019

Research article | 28 Mar 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS).

Load-resistance analysis: An alternative approach to tsunami damage assessment applied to the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami

Anawat Suppasri1, Kwanchai Pakoksung1, Ingrid Charvet2, Constance Ting Chua3, Noriyuki Takahashi4, Teraphan Ornthammarath5, Panon Latcharote6, Natt Leelawat7, and Fumihiko Imamura1 Anawat Suppasri et al.
  • 1International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University (468-1 Aramaki-aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845, Japan)
  • 2Department of Statistical Science, University College London, United Kingdom (Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT)
  • 3Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University (N2-01C-39, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798)
  • 4Department of Architecture and Building Science, School of Engineering, Tohoku University (6-6-11-1 Aramaki-aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan)
  • 5Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University (25/25 Puttamonthon, Nakorn Pathom, 73170, Thailand)
  • 6Department of Sustainable Development Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University (99 Moo 18, Phaholyothin Road, Tambon Klong Nung, Amphoe Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand)
  • 7Disaster and Risk Management Information Systems Research Group, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University (Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 Thailand)

Abstract. Tsunami fragility functions describe the probability of structural damage to tsunami flow characteristics. Fragility functions developed from past tsunami events (e.g. 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) are often applied directly, without modifications, to other areas at risk of tsunami for the purpose of damage and loss estimations. Consequentially, estimates carry uncertainty due to disparities in construction standards and coastal morphology between the specific region for which the fragility functions were originally derived and the region where they were being used. The main objective of this study is to provide an alternative approach to assessing tsunami damage, especially for buildings in regions where previously developed fragility functions do not exist. A damage assessment model is proposed in this study, where load-resistance analysis is performed for each building by evaluating hydrodynamic forces, buoyancies and debris impacts and comparing them to the resistance forces of each building. Numerical simulation was performed in this study to reproduce the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami in Ishinomaki city, which is chosen as a study site. Flow depths and velocities were calculated for approximately 20 000 wooden buildings in Ishinomaki city. Similarly, resistance forces (lateral and vertical) are estimated for each of these buildings. The buildings are then evaluated for its potential to collapse. Results from this study reflect a higher accuracy in predicting building collapse when using the proposed load-resistance analysis as compared to previously developed fragility functions in the same study area. Damage is also observed to have likely occurred before flow depth and velocity reach maximum values. With the above considerations, the proposed damage model might well be an alternative for building damage assessments in areas which have yet to be affected by modern tsunami events.

Anawat Suppasri et al.
Interactive discussion
Status: open (extended)
Status: open (extended)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement
Anawat Suppasri et al.
Anawat Suppasri et al.
Total article views: 315 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
247 65 3 315 32 1 3
  • HTML: 247
  • PDF: 65
  • XML: 3
  • Total: 315
  • Supplement: 32
  • BibTeX: 1
  • EndNote: 3
Views and downloads (calculated since 28 Mar 2019)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 28 Mar 2019)
Viewed (geographical distribution)  
Total article views: 182 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 175 with geography defined and 7 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
No saved metrics found.
No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 25 Jun 2019
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
It is known that fragility functions reflect localities (building design standard and topography) and flow velocity is more important as the damage might occur before the flow depth reach its maximum value. This research demonstrate that it is possible to accurately predict building damage by considering related forces including resistant force based on building design standard with high accuracy. This method will be useful for damage assessment in areas having no experience of damaging tsunami.
It is known that fragility functions reflect localities (building design standard and...