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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-252
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-252
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 05 Aug 2019

Submitted as: research article | 05 Aug 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS).

The 22 December 2018 Mount Anak Krakatau Volcanogenic Tsunami on Sunda Strait Coasts, Indonesia: tsunami and damage characteristics

Syamsidik1,2, Benazir1,2, Mumtaz Luthfi1, Anawat Suppasri3, and Louise K. Comfort4 Syamsidik et al.
  • 1Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Centre (TDMRC), Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jl. Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Hasan, Gampong Pie, Banda Aceh, 23233 Indonesia
  • 2Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jl. Syeh Abdurrauf No. 7, Banda Aceh, 23111 Indonesia
  • 3International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Aramaki Aza-Aoba 468-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845, Japan
  • 4Graduate School of Public International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, United States of America

Abstract. On 22 December 2018, a tsunami was generated from the Mount Anak Krakatau area that was caused by volcanic flank failures. The tsunami had severe impacts on the western coast of Banten and the southern coasts of Lampung in Indonesia. A series of surveys to measure the impacts of the tsunami was started three days after the tsunami and lasted ten days. Immediate investigations allowed the collection of relatively authentic images of the tsunami impacts before the clearing process started. This article investigates the impacts of the 2018 Sunda Strait tsunami on the affected areas and presents an analysis of the impacts of pure hydrodynamic tsunami forces on buildings. Impacts of the tsunami were expected to exhibit different characteristics than those found following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh. Data was collected from 117 flow depths along the Banten and Lampung coasts. Furthermore, 98 buildings or houses were assessed for damage. Results of this study revealed that the flow depths were higher in Banten than in Lampung. Directions of the tsunami arrays created by the complex bathymetry around the strait caused these differences. Tsunami-induced damage to buildings was mostly the result of impact forces and drag forces. Damping forces could not be associated with the damages. The tsunami warning system in Indonesia should be extended to anticipate non-seismic tsunamis, such as landslides and volcanic processes driven by tsunamis. Lack of a tsunami warning during the first few minutes after the generation of the first wave led to a significant number of human casualties at both of the affected areas.

Syamsidik et al.
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Short summary
On 22 December 2018, a tsunami was generated from the Mount Anak Krakatau area that was caused by volcanic flank failures. The tsunami had severe impacts on the western coast of Banten and the southern coasts of Lampung in Indonesia. A series of surveys to measure the impacts of the tsunami was started three days after the tsunami and lasted ten days. This paper provides insights from the tsunami affected area, in terms of distribution of tsunami flow depths and building damages.
On 22 December 2018, a tsunami was generated from the Mount Anak Krakatau area that was caused...
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