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Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: review article 08 Aug 2019

Submitted as: review article | 08 Aug 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS).

Review of fragility analyses for major building types in China with new implications for intensity-PGA relation development

Danhua Xin1, James Edward Daniell1,2, and Friedemann Wenzel1 Danhua Xin et al.
  • 1Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) and Geophysical Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 2General Sir John Monash Scholar, The General Sir John Monash Foundation, Level 5, 30 Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia

Abstract. The evaluation of the seismic fragility of buildings is one key task of earthquake safety and loss assessment. Many research reports and papers have been published over the past four decades that deal with the vulnerability of buildings to ground motion caused by earthquakes in China. We first scrutinized 69 papers and theses studying building damage for earthquakes occurred in densely populated areas. They represent observations where macro-seismic intensities have been determined according to the Chinese Official Seismic Intensity Scale. From these many studies we derived the median fragility functions (dependent on intensity) for four damage limit states of two most widely distributed building types: masonry and reinforced concrete. We also inspected 18 publications that provide analytical fragility functions (dependent on PGA) for the same damage classes and building categories. Thus, a solid fragility database based on both intensity and PGA is established for seismic prone areas in mainland China. A comprehensive view of the problems posed by the evaluation of fragility for different building types is given. Necessary comparison with international projects with similar focus is conducted. Based on the newly collected fragility database, we propose a new approach in deriving intensity-PGA relation by using fragility as the bridge and reasonable intensity-PGA relations are developed. This novel approach may shed light on new thought in decreasing the scatter in traditional intensity-PGA relation development, i.e., by further classifying observed macro-seismic intensities and instrumental ground motions based on difference in building seismic resistance capability.

Danhua Xin et al.
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Danhua Xin et al.
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Latest update: 20 Oct 2019
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Field surveys after major disastrous earthquakes have shown that poor performance of buildings in earthquake-affected areas is the leading cause of human fatalities and economic losses. The evaluation of seismic fragility for existing building stocks has become a crucial issue due to the frequent occurrence of earthquakes in the last decades. This study conducts such a comprehensive review for mainland China and aims to better serve the natural disaster prevention and mitigation cause in China.
Field surveys after major disastrous earthquakes have shown that poor performance of buildings...