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Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2018-333
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2018-333
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 02 Jan 2019

Research article | 02 Jan 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript is under review for the journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS).

Impacts of Horizontal Resolution and Air–Sea Flux Parameterization on the Intensity and Structure of simulated Typhoon Haiyan (2013)

Mien-Tze Kueh1, Wen-Mei Chen1, Yang-Fan Sheng1, Simon C. Lin2, Tso-Ren Wu3, Eric Yen4, Yu-Lin Tsai3, and Chuan-Yao Lin1 Mien-Tze Kueh et al.
  • 1Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre, Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 3Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan
  • 4Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

Abstract. This study investigates the impacts of horizontal resolution and surface flux formulas on typhoon intensity and structure simulations through the case study of the Super Typhoon Haiyan (2013). Three different sets of surface flux formulas in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model were tested using grid spacing of 1, 3, and 6 km. Both increased resolution and more reasonable surface flux formulas can improve typhoon intensity simulation, but their impacts on storm structures are different. A combination of decrease in momentum transfer coefficient and increase in enthalpy transfer coefficients has greater potential to yield stronger storm. This positive effect of more reasonable surface flux formulas can be efficiently enhanced when the grid spacing is appropriately reduced to yield intense and contracted eyewall structure. As resolution increases, the eyewall becomes more upright and contracted inward. The size of updraft cores in the eyewall shrinks and the region of downdraft increases; both updraft and downdraft become more intense. As a result, the enhanced convective cores within the eyewall are driven by more intense updrafts within a rather small fraction of spatial area. This contraction of eyewall is associated with an upper level warming process, which may be partly attributed to air detrained from the intense convective cores. This resolution dependence of spatial scale of updrafts is related to the model effective resolution as determined by grid spacing.

Mien-Tze Kueh et al.
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Mien-Tze Kueh et al.
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Short summary
In this study, we show that both the model horizontal resolution and air-sea flux parameterization can exert large influence on tropical cyclone intensity simulation but with different impacts on wind structures. We highlight the intensification and contraction of TC eyewall in response to the reduction of grid spacing. We also suggest that a well-developed eyewall is more conducive to the positive effect of flux formulas on TC development.
In this study, we show that both the model horizontal resolution and air-sea flux...
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