Journal cover Journal topic
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2018-107
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
02 May 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It has been under review for the journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS). The manuscript was not accepted for further review after discussion.
Near- and far-field tsunami waves, displaced water volume, potential energy and velocity flow rates by a stochastic submarine earthquake source model
Khaled T. Ramadan Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, College of Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, P.O. Box 1029, Abu Quir Campus, Alexandria, Egypt
Abstract. Sources of tsunamis are non-uniform and commonly uncorrelated and very difficult to predict. The best ideal way to appear their aspects is through heterogeneous or stochastic source models which are more realistic. The effect of random fluctuation of submarine earthquake modeled by vertical time-dependent displacement of a stochastic source model is investigated on the tsunami generation and propagation waves. The noise intensity parameter controls the increase of the stochastic bottom amplitude which results in increasing the oscillations and amplitude in the free surface elevation which provides an additional contribution to tsunami waves. The L2 norm of the free surface elevation, the displaced water volume and the potential energy are examined. These quantitative information about predicting tsunami risk are useful for risk managers who decide to issue warnings and evacuation orders. The horizontal average velocity flow rates of the tsunami wave are investigated. The average velocity flow rates can provide valuable information about the stochastic bottom topography by the distinctive velocity oscillations. Flow velocity is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation which may provide a clear signal of tsunami flows. Time series of the flow velocities and wave gauges under the effect the water depth of the ocean are investigated.
Citation: Ramadan, K. T.: Near- and far-field tsunami waves, displaced water volume, potential energy and velocity flow rates by a stochastic submarine earthquake source model, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2018-107, 2018.
Khaled T. Ramadan
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
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EC1: 'Reject paper', Maria Ana Baptista, 09 May 2018 Printer-friendly Version 
Khaled T. Ramadan
Khaled T. Ramadan

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Short summary
The source model was considered as a stochastic submarine earthquake. As the noise intensity increases, the amplitude and oscillation of the tsunami wave increases. The amount of water displaced increases as the length of the source model increases. The potential energy increases as the height of the wave increases. The L2 norm can be useful when there are no adequate data about the bottom topography. The average velocity may provide warning of a tsunami approach, based on velocity oscillations.
The source model was considered as a stochastic submarine earthquake. As the noise intensity...
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