Erosive phenomena in the Kaulon archaeological site: origins and remedies
Giuseppe Barbaro1, Salvatore Siviglia2, Giandomenico Foti1, Carmelo Luca Sicilia1, Maria Clorinda Mandaglio1, Ferdinando Frega3, and Pierfabrizio Puntorieri11DICEAM Department, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria loc. Feo di Vito, 89122, Italy 2Calabria Basin Authority, Catanzaro Loc. Germaneto, 88100, Italy 3Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende, 87036, Italy
Received: 19 Dec 2016 – Accepted for review: 06 Feb 2017 – Discussion started: 07 Feb 2017
Abstract. This paper analyses the erosive phenomena which affected the coast of Monasterace Marina, in the province of Reggio Calabria (Italy), where the Kaulon archaeological site is located on a dune and which extends along the coast for 1 km. The phenomena which began in the last 50 years have been reinforced in the new millennium. Recently, a storm that occurred in early December 2013 eroded much of the beach and caused destruction of parts of the dune, with sliding of some archaeological finds onto the beach below. Following this storm, the Provincial Administration of Reggio Calabria in January 2014 built a barrier. It was only a temporary intervention however. In fact, in early February 2014 another storm caused further damage to the beach and to the site. As a result of this, in 2015, the Calabria Basin Authority proposed a design solution which is part of the Master Plan of solutions to mitigate the risk of coastal erosion in Calabria.
In this paper, all the possible causes of erosion are investigated through the analysis of different types of data: bathymetric, cartographic, geological, geomorphological, sedimentological, climatic and wave climatic. This analysis is carried out for different historical periods over the last 50 years. Also analysed were extreme sea storms, coastal and river sediment transport, land cover and average rainfall, in order to understand the erosive phenomena. Finally, the huge amount of data obtained in this study was used to analyse the project proposal for different solutions to the problem.
Barbaro, G., Siviglia, S., Foti, G., Sicilia, C. L., Mandaglio, M. C., Frega, F., and Puntorieri, P.: Erosive phenomena in the Kaulon archaeological site: origins and remedies, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/nhess-2016-399, 2017.