Journal cover Journal topic
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/nhess-2016-356
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
06 Dec 2016
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles
Jiyang Tian1, Jia Liu1,2, Chuanzhe Li1, and Fuliang Yu1 1State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, 100038, China
2State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resource and Hydraulirc Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China
Abstract. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this study to simulate six storm events in two semi-humid and semi-arid catchments of Northern China. The six storm events are classified into four types based on the rainfall evenness in the spatial and temporal dimensions. Two microphysics, two planetary boundary layers (PBL) and three cumulus parameterizations are combined to develop 12 physical ensembles for rainfall generation. The WRF model performs the best for Type 1 event with relatively even distributions of rainfall in both space and time. The average relative error (ARE) for the cumulative rainfall amount is 16.98 %. For the spatial rainfall simulation, the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) is found with event II (0.3989) which has the most even spatial distribution, and for the temporal simulation the lowest RMSE is found with event I (1.0171) which has the most even temporal distribution. It is found to be the most difficult to reproduce the very convective storm with uneven spatiotemporal distributions (Type 4 event) and the average relative error (ARE) for the cumulative rainfall amounts is up to 68.07 %. The RMSE results of Event III with the most uneven spatial and temporal distribution are 0.9363 for the spatial simulation and 2.7769 for the temporal simulation, which are much higher than the other storms. The general performance of the current WRF physical parameterisations is discussed. The Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) is found to be unsuitable for rainfall simulation in the study sites. For Type 1, 2, and 4 storms, ensemble 4 performs the best. For Type 3 storms, ensemble 5 and 7 are the better choice. More guidance is provided for choosing among the physical parameterisations for accurate rainfall simulations of different storm types in the study area.

Citation: Tian, J., Liu, J., Li, C., and Yu, F.: Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/nhess-2016-356, in review, 2016.
Jiyang Tian et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
 
SC1: 'comments of the manuscript', Yanjun Zhang, 24 Dec 2016 Printer-friendly Version 
AC1: 'Reply to the interactive comment on "Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles" from Yanjun Zhang', Jia Liu, 25 Dec 2016 Printer-friendly Version 
 
RC1: 'comments to authors and editor nhess-2016-356', Anonymous Referee #1, 04 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC2: 'Reply to the interactive comment on "Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles" from Anonymous Referee #1', Jia Liu, 09 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
 
RC2: 'Comments on Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles', Anonymous Referee #2, 05 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC3: 'Reply to the interactive comment on "Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles" from Anonymous Referee #2', Jia Liu, 09 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
RC3: 'Reply to authors: Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
 
AC4: 'Reply to the interactive comment on "Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles" from Anonymous Referee #1', Jia Liu, 10 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
 
SC2: 'Interactive comment on “Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles”', Zhigang CHU, 11 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC5: 'Reply to the interactive comment on "Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using WRF multi-physics ensembles" from Zhigang Chu', Jia Liu, 18 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
Jiyang Tian et al.
Jiyang Tian et al.

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Short summary
How to simulate and predict the precipitation accurately by numerical weather prediction is a difficult task for medium sized catchments in semi-humid and semi-arid regions. This study indicates that using multi-physics ensembles is a good method to reduce the uncertainties of rainfall simulation. More guidance is provided for choosing the physical parameterisations for accurate rainfall simulations of different storm types in semi-humid and semi-arid regions.
How to simulate and predict the precipitation accurately by numerical weather prediction is a...
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