Journal cover Journal topic
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/nhess-2016-297
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
26 Oct 2016
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS).
Liquefaction, landslide and slope stability analyses of soils: a case study of soils from part of Kwara, Kogi and Anambra states of Nigeria
Olusegun O. Ige1, Tolulope A. Oyeleke1, Christopher Baiyegunhi2, Temitope L. Oloniniyi2, and Luzuko Sigabi2 1Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Private Mail Bag 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
2Department of Geology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Abstract. Landslide is one of the most ravaging natural disaster in the world and recent occurrences in Nigeria require urgent need for landslide risk assessment. A total of nine samples representing three major landslide prone areas in Nigeria were studied, with a view of determining their liquefaction and sliding potential. Geotechnical analysis was used to investigate the liquefaction potential, while the slope conditions were deduced using SLOPE/W. The results of geotechnical analysis revealed that the soils contain 6–34 % clay and 72–90 % sand. Based on the unified soil classification system, the soil samples were classified as well graded with group symbols of SW, SM and CL. The plot of plasticity index against liquid limit shows that the soil samples from Anambra and Kogi are potentially liquefiable. The liquefaction screening criteria also revealed that Anambra and Kogi are potentially susceptible to liquefaction, whereas samples from Kwara are not susceptible to liquefaction. Samples from Kogi and Anambra have lower values of MDD and OMC, ranging between 1.64–1.80 g/cm3 and 8.0–12.3 % respectively. These values showed that the samples are granular material with soil having anticipated embankments performance, subgrade and base material as poor-fair, fair-good and good-poor, respectively. The direct shear strength test on the soil samples indicated that the cohesion and angle of internal friction varies between 40 80 kPa and 24–35°. The Coefficient of permeability vary between 8.71 × 10−5 and 1.18 × 10−3. The factor of safety (FOS) values for soils from Anambra, Kogi and Kwara are 1.452, 1.946 and 2.488, respectively. These values indicate stability but care must be taken as the condition at the site shows that the slope is in its state of impending failure. The FOS for dry slope was higher when compared to the FOS values from wet slope. This was due to the effect of pore water pressure on the soil as it reduced the shear strength of the soil. A reduced value of FOS was observed in the model under loading conditions, which indicate that loading is also a contributing factor to the slope failure. It is recommended that proper and efficient drainage system should be employed in these areas to reduce the influence of pore water pressure in the soil.

Citation: Ige, O. O., Oyeleke, T. A., Baiyegunhi, C., Oloniniyi, T. L., and Sigabi, L.: Liquefaction, landslide and slope stability analyses of soils: a case study of soils from part of Kwara, Kogi and Anambra states of Nigeria, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/nhess-2016-297, in review, 2016.
Olusegun O. Ige et al.
Olusegun O. Ige et al.
Olusegun O. Ige et al.

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Short summary
Geotechnical analysis was used to investigate the liquefaction potential in three major landslide prone areas in Nigeria. The result shows that liquefaction is the main cause of landslide and with necessary vibration, liquefaction in those sites could be disastrous. The factor of safety values for the Anambra site indicate stability but care must be taken as the condition shows that the slope is in its state of impending failure. Loading is also a contributing factor to the slope failure.
Geotechnical analysis was used to investigate the liquefaction potential in three major...
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