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Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2015-337
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
19 Jan 2016
Review status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS). The manuscript was not accepted for further review after discussion.
Assessment of rockfall hazard on the steep-high slopes: Ermenek (Karaman, Turkey)
Hidayet Taga and Kıvanç Zorlu Mersin University, Department of Geological Engineering, Mersin, Turkey
Abstract. Ermenek is one of the curious settlement areas because of its topographical features in Karaman (Turkey). The city is located in northern side of the very steep cliffs formed byjointed limestone which are suddenly increased from 1250 m to 1850 m. Moreover, these cliffs having almost 90° slope dip are the main rockfall source areas due to their lithologicalcharacteristics, climatic effects and engineering properties of rock units. Up to now, depending on rockfall events, almost 500 residences were damaged severely, and losses oflives were also recorded in Ermenek. The rockfall phonemon are initiated by discontinuities, lithological changes, weathering and freeze-thaw process in the study area. In this study,extensive fieldwork including determination of location and dimension of hanging, detached and already fallen blocks, a detailed discontinuity survey, description of geological,morphological and topographical characteristics was performed. Besides, rockfall hazard is evaluated by two-dimensional rockfall analyses along 10 profiles. During the rockfallanalyses; run out distance, bounce height, kinetic energy and velocity of various size of blocks for each profiles are determined by using RocFall v4.0 software. The results obtainedfrom rockfall analyses were used to map the areas possible rockfall hazard zones and rockfall source areas were interpreted.

According to rockfall analysis, field study and laboratory testing, protective and preventiverecommendations can be suggested for the areas under rockfall threat. But, the most widely- known remedial measures in literature such as trenches, retaining walls (barrier), wiremeshes, cable/streching nets and rock bolting etc. are not sufficient in the study area, due to topographical, atmospheric and lithological features. For these reasons, firstly total evacuation of the danger zone should be applied and then hanging blocks in the reachablelocations can be removed taking safety measures in this area to make it safer for the living people.


Citation: Taga, H. and Zorlu, K.: Assessment of rockfall hazard on the steep-high slopes: Ermenek (Karaman, Turkey), Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2015-337, 2016.
Hidayet Taga and Kıvanç Zorlu
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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RC1: 'referee comments', Anonymous Referee #1, 12 Feb 2016 Printer-friendly Version 
AC1: 'REPLY OF THE AUTHORS TO ANONYMOUS REVIEWER’S COMMENTS', KIVANC ZORLU, 24 Feb 2016 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
RC2: 'nhess-2015-337', Anonymous Referee #2, 04 Mar 2016 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Hidayet Taga and Kıvanç Zorlu
Hidayet Taga and Kıvanç Zorlu

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Short summary
Ermenek is located in the northern side of the very steep cliffs, which are formed of jointed limestone. These cliffs, having a slope dip of nearly 90°, are the main rockfall source areas. Up to now, depending on the rockfall event, nearly 500 residences have been severely damaged, and the loss of life has occurred in Ermenek.
Ermenek is located in the northern side of the very steep cliffs, which are formed of jointed...
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