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Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
31 Jul 2014
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper for further review has not been submitted.
Process-related deformation monitoring by PSI using high resolution space-based SAR data: a case study in Düsseldorf, Germany
D. Liu1, A. Sowter2, and W. Niemeier1 1Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
2Nottingham Geospatial Institute, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
Abstract. TerraSAR-X satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) scenes have been analysed using Persistent Scatter Interferometry (PSI) approach to monitor a tunnelling process in Düsseldorf, Germany. The aim of this work is to detect the deformation of ground surface and structures above the tunnelling line during the tunnel excavation. In this study, the PSI approach integrated in the open source software package Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) was employed since it has shown significant advantages in obtaining Persistent Scatterers (PS). In order to protect the historic buildings in this region from subsidence-induced damages, a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) was used to restrain serious displacements during the tunnelling excavation, as well as compensation injections. Both surface uplifting and subsidence were observed during this tunnelling process, by a levelling survey and a validated PSI observation. It is concluded that sub-centimetre accuracy observations are achievable for process-related monitoring in urban areas, using the open source software package.

Citation: Liu, D., Sowter, A., and Niemeier, W.: Process-related deformation monitoring by PSI using high resolution space-based SAR data: a case study in Düsseldorf, Germany, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 2, 4813-4830,, 2014.
D. Liu et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed (peer review stopped)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
RC C1797: 'Review on Dusseldorf Tunneling with PSI', Batuhan Osmanoglu, 07 Aug 2014 Printer-friendly Version 
RC C1802: 'Review on paper', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Aug 2014 Printer-friendly Version 
D. Liu et al.
D. Liu et al.


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