Fracture network characterisation of a landslide by electrical resistivity tomography
S. Szalai1, K. Szokoli1, A. Novák1, Á. Tóth2, M. Metwaly3,4, and E. Prácser11RCAES HAS, GGI, 9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary 2Department of Physical and Applied Geology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary 3Archaeology department, college of tourism and archaeology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 4National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Cairo, Egypt
Received: 23 Apr 2014 – Accepted for review: 15 May 2014 – Discussion started: 05 Jun 2014
Abstract. In contrary to most of the landslide studies which concentrate to the sliding surface in this paper the fracture system of a loess landslide is investigated. The continuity and geometry, orientation and dip of the major fractures are crucial parameters for assessing rock stability and landslide evolution. Rain infiltrating moreover easily into the rock mass through fractures providing lubrication for the material to slide, and increases the self-mass of the material increasing the slumping rate. Fracture maps enable beside of the characterisation of the fractured area the delineation of the endangered area of slow-moving landslides in due time and getting information about its inner structure. For constructing such maps Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) measurements have been carried out using different geoelectric configurations. In spite of the high density of the fractures and their changing physical parameters in function of their water content – which make the interpretation rather difficult – a number of fractures have been detected and more or less well localised. On the basis of the present research the application of the Schlumberger and the Pole-Dipole arrays is recommended to fulfil the aim of the study. The optimised Stummer array is at the same time the only array which presents conductive anomalies (supposedly water filled fractures), as well, and indicates that fractures elongate deep downwards. Because these features seem to be realistic based on field observations or theoretical considerations the Stummer array may be a very good tool for completing e.g. P-Dp measurements. The study area could have been divided by all arrays into differently fractured zones, which assists a lot in understanding the landslide structure and evolution. It was shown, moreover, that in the still passive area there are thick fractures, too, verifying its dangerousness, as well. The ERT results enabled localising the rupture surfaces of future slumps which proved to be distributed uniformly with about 10 m distance between them and predicting mass movements which may prevent the slump along the visible fracture. Similar unidirectional fracture systems could be investigated by the ERT method for any hydrogeological or engineering geological aim.
Szalai, S., Szokoli, K., Novák, A., Tóth, Á., Metwaly, M., and Prácser, E.: Fracture network characterisation of a landslide by electrical resistivity tomography, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 2, 3965-4010, doi:10.5194/nhessd-2-3965-2014, 2014.